standard arms 9mm As its service weapon, the FBI has picked the 9mm handgun of Glock Gen 5. The causes for their caliber shift have been highly speculated. Science, there is a brief answer. The research was done and mathematics was done. The Reasons why FBI went back to standard arms 9mm
Spoiler Alert: “Although some law enforcement agencies have transformed into 9 mm calibers in recent years, this is at the cost of reduced magazine capacity, more felt rebound, and no significant increase in terminal performance, given sufficient projectile selection.”
The FBI is a technically highly-trained institution. They have a leading role in US law enforcement and take it very seriously.
As the word of the FBI’s demand for 9mm handguns went public, they were faced with a deluge of queries from state and local agencies, many who carry .40 S&W, regarding the move. The statement below was developed the FBI Training Division to answer such inquiries and was intended for transmission to law enforcement entities. It was not designated as sensitive to law enforcement and was extended to citizens. I authenticate its origin, feeling that its dissemination does not pose a risk to law enforcement and that it offers enlightening, taxpayer-paid science to the public. The Reasons why FBI went back to standard arms 9mm
The FBI created modern ammunition testing after the Miami shootout in 1986 and brought the law enforcement movement to the 40th scale. The FBI is a highly conservative ballistics laboratory with one of the world’s best. Many people have supported a transition back to 9mm with the wonderful 21st century developments in ammunition technology.
I respect science and how difficult it was to change it. Below, their carefully constructed communication is sent and explained their motives to other law enforcement authorities.
FBI training: FBI Academy, Quantico, FBI Training Division.
Law Enforcement Partners Executive Summary Justification
· For decades there have been major disputes in law enforcement
· Most common knowledge and its impacts on the human goal are derived from myth and folklore.
· The projectiles are what ultimately injure our opponents and the projectiles must be the basis of the discussion about the optimal “caliber”
· There are projectiles in all major law enforcement calibers that are highly likely to fail in the LEO incident and projectiles that are highly likely to succeed in the case of LEO in a shooting event. ;
The stopping capability of handgun is only a myth
· A scientifically valid depth of penetration for efficient harming of a human goal (FBI uses 12′) is the single most significant factor.
The terminal efficiency of several premium-line law enforcement bullets (after 2007) has been considerably boosted by modern projectiles (emphasis on the 9mm Luger offerings)
9mm Luger currently offers selected projectiles that I exceed most of the premium line under identical test settings. The Reasons why FBI went back to standard arms 9mm
S&W 40 and . 40
45 FBI tested automotive projectiles
· 9mm Luger provides higher capacities for magazines, reduced retrieval costs (in both ammunition and arms wear), as well as higher functionality (in FBI weapons)
· Most FBI shooting is fired with FASTER and more ACCURATE shooting a 9mm Luger vs. shooting a 1.40 S&W. (similar sized weapons)
· The injury paths of top line Automobile enforcement rounds from 9mm Luger through the..45 Automobile are not significantly different
· LEO’s can field (with correct selection of bulletins) 9 mm Lugers with all terminal performance potential of any other caliber of the law enforcement gun without any of the disadvantages with the “bigger” calibers;
Justification for Law Enforcement Partners
On rare occasions the subject of law enforcement is more impassioned than the decision of an organization’s handgun caliber. A lot of people voice their ideas by reiterating the old adage that “bigger is better,” while others “hearted” that a smaller calibre was missing and a bigger calibre “far better.” Some people are even convinced that there is a caliber that provides a “one shot stop.” “Decisions on the selection of munitions are particularly complicated because many of the relevant concerns relating to arms and munitions are strongly based in myth and folklore,” it was said. This is still true now as it was formerly stated
Caliber, when evaluated alone, brings about a distinct set of elements to consider such as magazine capacity for a particular weapon size, ammunition availability, felt recoil, weight and cost. What is seldom discussed but most important in caliber discussion is the employment of projectiles and their ultimate performance capability.
You should never discuss making or calibering a rifle by yourself. The projectile is what wounds and in the end this should be the center of the debate. The projectiles are highly likely to fail by law enforcement officers in each of the three most used handgun calibers (9mm Luger, 40smith & Wesson and 45sm AUto), and each of them shows a high possibility of success in a shootings by law enforcement officers. In selecting the best possible option, a service projectile needs to be thoroughly screened and scientifically evaluated.
Understanding Handgun Caliber Terminal Ballistic Realities
There have been several so-called ‘research’ and numerous analyzes of statistical data in this regard. Research concerning simply shooting deaths is meaningless as the objective of law enforcement is to stop a threat as quickly as possible during a deadly force engagement. Whether or not death happens has no effect, provided that the threat of death or serious injury to police officers and innocent third parties is removed.
“The concept of instantaneous incapacity is the sole purpose of law enforcement shootings and is the basis of arms, ammunition, calibers and training decisions.”
Studies on “power stoppage” are meaningless because nobody was ever able to identify how much power, strength or kinetic energy an aggressive and determined adversary must properly stop at rapidly and even the largest pistol calibers cannot give such force. Power stopping handgun is only a fiction. Studies of so-called ‘one shot stops’ that are used as a technique to define the effectiveness of one handgun cartridge are not meaningful, because psychological variables cannot be taken into consideration and because of the absence of detailed reporting shot placements.
In short, many studies have been carried out over years to “show,” by applying a very failed methodology and or a predisposition to manipulate statistics, that a given cartridge has been superior than another. To be able to grasp terminally handgun ballistics, just the facts, i.e. medical reality and those that are usually accepted within law-enforcement, i.e. tactical realities, must be addressed in order to deal with them.
Clusters in the Central Nervous System (CNS) are the only reliable means of causing instantaneous incapacitation at or above the cervical spine. In this situation, for obvious reasons any of the calibers frequently employed in enforcement would be sufficient irrespective of expansion. In addition to bullets at the CNS, injections of big important organs cause quick blood loss are the most dependable way to produce fast incapacitation. In simple terms, shooting is the most essential component for obtaining both disabilities.
In order to cause quick blood loss, a projecttile must get into the body deep enough to reach the big vital organs, mainly heart, lungen, aorta, vena cava, and less liver, spleen. The expert medical specialist in assessing gunshot wounds has long been able to establish that this is equivalent to a range of 12-18 inches of penetration, according to individual size and the angle of the bullet path (e.g., through arm, shoulder, etc.). This aim is achieved, but more consistently with some legal projectiles, by modern, appropriately constructed, extending handgun bullets. 1 Wounding and Effectiveness Handgun Factors: The Reasons why FBI went back to standard arms 9mm
To the extent that a projectile expands, the diameter of the permanent cavity that is, simply put, that tissue in direct touch with and hence destruction of the projectile is determined. The entire permanent cavity is achieved in combination with the distance of the path of the projectile (penetration). During a long time, it has been established by professionals in the medical field who assessed shooting injuries, that the injured path visible at the autopsy or in an operation cannot be differentiated between common handgun calibers used in law enforcement, because of the elasticity of most human tissues and the low speed of firearms relative to the rifle projectiles. The Reasons why FBI went back to standard arms 9mm
C. Temporary Cavity:
The temporary cavity is generated by the stretch of the tissue from the permanent cavity. The tensile strength of the tissue, resulting in tearing, can be exceeded where the temporary cavity is generated rapidly in elastic tissues. This effect is seen on high-speed projectiles like rifle calibers but not on handgun calibers. The projectile velocity needs to reach around 2,000 fps in order for the transient cavity of most handgun bullets to affect wounding.
The temporary cavity is not generated sufficiently fast at the lower speeds of the pistol rounds to have an injury effect, so any differentiation between handgun calibers in the temporary cavity is meaningless. “A handgun bullet must hit that building directly in order to cause considerable injury to a structure.”  2 Gunshot Wounds, Elsevier Society, New Yorking, NY, 1987, p. 42. 2 DiMaio, V.J.M.
Fragmentation may be characterized as the “projectile parts or secondary bone fragments which, separate from the permanent cavity, can be driven out from the cavity and cut off muscle tissues, blood arteries etc.” 3. Due to the low speed of pistol rounds, fragmentation is not reliable in soft tissue wounds. Fragments normally can be discovered within one centimeter (0.39″) of the permanent cavity when fragmentation occurs. 4 Because the majority of modern premium munitions currently use bonded projectiles (copper covers bound to lead core), the probability of fragmentation is quite small. The risk of fragmentation is negligible.
Therefore, injury consequences are not believed to be consistent with the fragmentation of a handgun caliber bullet. 3 Fackler, M.L., Malinowski, J.A., Journal of Trauma 25: 522?529.1958 “The Wound Profile: A Visual Methodius for Quantifying Gunshot Wound Components.” Four Wounding handgun Factors and Efficiency: Ballistic Research Facility, Firearms Training Unit, 1989.
The psychological state of the opponent shall be included in any debate about halting armed opponents with a pistol. Probably the most critical psychological aspects to achieve quick disability following a gunshot wound to the body. 5 First and foremost, it is never possible to count on the psychological effects of a shot to stop a person from further deliberate behavior. Those who stop often because they make up their mind, not because they have to.
Due to patterns of survival secondary to ‘fight or flight’ reactions in the body, the effects of drug/alcohol and pain may be simply disregarded if there is excessive rage or violence. Those individuals who decided to halt right after a torso shot often do so, because they know that they have been shot and fear harm or death, irrespective of caliber, speed, or the design of the bullet. Psychological elements can also be a primary cause of incapacitation failures and must be stressed as a result, proper shot position, adequate penetration and multiple shots. 5 Ibid. – 5 Ibid.
Shooting is crucial and police officers strike an opponent on average with just 20 – 30% of the shots being fired in the event of shooting. In view of the fact that shot placement is crucial to acquire efficient incapacitation (and difficult to do given the multiple variables that exist in a fatal force), the caliber employed must optimize the possibility of striking vital organs. Only one or two solid torso strikes the adversary with typical law enforcement shootings. This means that every missile that strikes the torso is as likely to penetrate deeply as possible to disturb the essential organ.
In order to evaluate if more precise and faster strikes are achieved with one vs the other, Ballistic Research Facility has performed a test that compares similar sizes in both .40 S&W and 9mm calibers. Most participants to the study have fired Glock pistols at 9mm caliber faster and more accurately. The 9mm delivers the best chance of success to fighting shooters while increasing the speed and accuracy of the most qualified shooters.
Whereas certain law enforcement organizations switched from 9 mm Luger to higher calibers in recent years, they do not boost terminal performance at the cost of a lower magazine capacity, perceived recoil and due to the adequate selection of projectiles.
Other organizations of the law enforcement sector are replacing 9mm Luger using the new technology used for 9mm Luger bullets. These organisations, because they can expect faster and more precise shooting strings, better capacity in the magazine(similar weapons) and every terminal performa, give their military people greatest opportunity to survive the dangerous encounter.
Given the foregoing facts and the number of ammunition producers who now supply 9mm Luger with excellent premium-line enforcement bullets, it is possible that the shift to 9mm Luger now represents a significant advantage for our armed enforcement staff. The Reasons why FBI went back to standard arms 9mm